Fertiliser technology

01 November 1997 00:00  [Source: APC]

LICENSOR TYPE OF LICENCE APPROVED
CONTRACTOR
FEEDSTOCK PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS
AMMONIA
Ammonia Casale Non-exclusive Davy (Kvaerner
John Brown)
Foster Wheeler
Jacobs Engineering
KTI Lurgi Linde CLE  
Technip ABB
Lummus Global
Chiyoda Ube
Industries MW
Kellogg
Any Axial-radial reactor for ammonia synthesis
Bechtel   Bechtel Natural gas Conventional process, low energy consumption
Brown & Root
Petroleum and
Chemicals
Technology fee;
worldwide
Brown & Root
Petroleum and
Chemicals Technip
Tecnimont
Natural gas, naphtha,
refinery gas, LPG
Gas turbine driven process air compressor exhaust used as
combustion air in primary reformer. Mild primary reforming,
excess air in secondary reformer. Cryogenic purification of
synthesis gas after methanation. Adiabatic synthesis. Lower
refrigeration needs
GIAP Russian Federation
patents
GIAP Natural gas, coal or
naphtha
600 and 1360 tonne/day plants
Haldor Topsøe     Natural gas, naphtha
or mixtures
Steam reforming with optional prereforming, shift, CO2
removal, methanation, synthesis
Haldor Topsøe     Fuel oil or coal Gasification, sulphur tolerant shift, sour gas removal,
methanation, synthesis
Haldor Topsøe     Nitrogen, hydrogen,
or hydrogen-rich off-
gas
Feed gas purification (cryogenic or by PSA), compression,
synthesis
Howe-Baker
Engineers Inc
Included in project sale   Howe-Baker Natural gas, LPG,
naphtha
Ammonia converter from ICI, in-house technology for
remaining process system
ICI Katalco Non-exclusive Chiyoda Kvaerner
Process Technology
Mannesmann Linde
Natural gas or
naphtha
'LCA' ammonia process. High efficiency, small scale process,  
compact, non-fired steam reformer, single shift, pressure
swing purification, low pressure synthesis
ICI Katalco Non-exclusive Chiyoda Kvaerner
Proces Technology
Mannesmann KTI
Natural gas or
naphtha
'AMV' ammonia process. Non-stoichiometric
hydrogen/nitrogen ratios. Low loop pressure. Total energy
consumption - 27 GJ/tonne
Jacobs Engineering   Worldwide Jacobs Engineering
others by
arrangement
Natural gas/naphtha Excess air, PSA unit low pressure synthesis
Jacobs Engineering Worldwide Jacobs Engineering
Others by
arrangement
Waste hydrogen 100-2000 tonne/day. Low pressure synthesis loop
Jacobs Engineering Worldwide Jacobs Engineering
others by
arrangement
Natural gas Revamp - 50% increase without reformer change
Kinetics
Technology
International
General KTI Natural gas ICI LCA heat exchanger reforming and synthesis in a LP
loop
Krupp Uhde Exclusive Krupp Uhde Coal, lignite,
carbonaceous
materials
Synthesis gas by Texaco or HTW gasification
Krupp Uhde Exclusive Krupp Uhde Coal, lignite, other
carbonaceous
materials eg peat,
biomass
High temperature Winkler (HTW) fluidised bed gasification
under pressure
Krupp Uhde   Intecsa Krupp Uhde
UIL
Natural gas, naphtha Steam reforming
KTI Worldwide, non-
exclusive
KTI Natural gas, methane,  
naphtha
'Parc', using nitrogen and hydrogen from PSA plus ammonia
loop
Licensintorg/GIAP Proprietary GIAP Natural gas Two-stage, tandem, catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons.
First stage: tube converter. Can also be used for hydrogen
production
Linde Non-exclusive Linde Heavy residue Partial oxidation, gas purification, ammonia synthesis
LICENSOR TYPE OF LICENCE APPROVED
CONTRACTOR
FEEDSTOCK PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS
Linde Know-how fee,
non-exclusive
Linde Natural gas or
naphtha
Steam reforming, CO-shift, PSA, ammonia synthesis
MW Kellogg
Technology
Proprietary MW Kellogg Toyo 
Engineering
Natural gas through
naphtha
'Kaap'/'Kres' proprietary technology
Texaco
Development
Corporation
Know-how fee,
non-exclusive
Most major
contractors
Heavy residual oil,
liquid hydrocarbons,
coals, carbonaceuous
solids, petroleum coke
and coal-
Product: derived liquids partial oxidation, CO-shift, selective 
removal of acid gases, nitrogen wash, ammonia synthesis
AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS
BASF Non-exclusive Krupp Uhde Calcium nitrate
tetrahydrate
Precipitation of calcium carbonate from calcium nitrate
tetrahydrate by reaction with ammonia and carbon dioxide
Incro Non-exclusive   Ammonia, urea,
ammonia liquor 80%
Product: N32 liquid fertiliser
Incro Non-exclusive   Ammonium nitrate,
ammonia
Product: N41 liquid fertiliser. Dissolution
AMMONIUM NITRATE
GIAP Russian Federation
patents
GIAP Ammonia, nitric acid Product: Ammonium nitrate prills 1600 tonne/day plants
GIAP Russian Federation
patents
GIAP Ammonia, nitric acid,
additive
Product: Porous ammonium nitrate
GIAP Proprietary GIAP Ammonium nitrate Product: Porous ammonium nitrate 40 000 tonne/year
plants
GIAP Russian Federation
patents
  Ammonia, nitric acid,
additives
Product: Waterproof ammonium nitrate
Grande Paroisse  Non-exclusive, basic
and extended basic
engineering
Any qualified
contractor
Ammonia, nitric acid Flexible, high quality, low atmospheric pollution - pipe
reactor
Grande Paroisse Non-exclusive, basic
and extended basic
engineering
Any qualified
contractor
Prilled/granulated
AN/CANs
Product: Ammonium nitrate, calcium ammonium nitrate.
Coated prilled/granulated free-flowing, suitable for long
distance bulk transport under tropical climatic conditions
Incro Non-exclusive   Ammonia, nitric acid Explosive and fertiliser grades. Energy saving process, pipe
reactor
John Brown
Deutsche
Engineering
Exclusive John Brown
Deutsche
Engineering
Kvaerner John
Brown
Ammonium nitrate
solution, filler material 
Product: Ammonium nitrate and calcium ammonium nitrate
(fertiliser grade) Pug mill granulation to produce granular
AN and CAN. Former Stamicarbon process
John Brown
Deutsche
Engineering
Exclusive John Brown
Deutsche
Engineering
Kvaerner John
Brown
Ammonia, weak
nitric acid
Product: Ammonium nitrate solution. Atmospheric and
pressure (loop reactor) neutralisation. Former Stamicarbon
process
Kaltenbach-
Thuring
Case by case,
non-exclusive, worldwide 
Case by case Ammonia, nitric acid Atmospheric and pressure neutraliser. Pipe reactor. Prilling
or granulation
Kemira   Krupp Uhde Ammonia, nitric acid Product: AN solution. Pressure neutralisation, energy
recovery
Krupp Uhde Exclusive Krupp Uhde Ammonium nitrate
solution, additives
dolomite
Fertiliser grades. Evaporation, pugmill granulation or prilling
Krupp Uhde Exclusive Krupp Uhde Ammonium nitrate
solution
Product: Ammonium nitrate, ANFO (porous grade) High or
low density, evaporation, prilling conditioning
Krupp Uhde Exclusive Krupp Uhde Ammonia, nitric acid Product: AN solution. Vacuum or pressure neutralisation.
Energy recovery, process condensate clean-up
Polimex-Cekop Non-exclusive Polimex-Cekop Nitrogen from air,
methane, nitric acid
Decomposition of synthesis gas to ammonia, reaction with
nitric acid. Platinum catalyst
Weatherly Inc Exclusive Weatherly
Chematur
Ammonia, nitric acid Solutions
AMMONIUM PHOSPHATE
AZF Non-exclusive Krupp Uhde Phosphoric acid,
ammonia
Double pipe reactor
Badger Non-exclusive Badger Ammonia, phosphoric
acid
Neutralisation, granulation
LICENSOR TYPE OF LICENCE APPROVED
CONTRACTOR
FEEDSTOCK PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS
Grande Paroisse Non-exclusive, basic
and extended basic
engineering
Any qualified
contractor
Phosphoric acid,
ammonia, sulphuric
acid
Product Mono- and diammonium phosphates. Dual pipe
reactor process. Low energy, no liquid effluent, low
atmospheric pollution
Incro Non-exclusive   Phosphoric acid,
ammonia
Product: Diammonium phosphate, monoammonium
phosphate. Pipe reactor process. Reaction, granulation, drying 
Incro Non-exclusive   Liquid ammonia,
phosphoric acid
Product: Monoammomium phosphate, diammonium
phosphate. Reaction, granulation. Also offers process for
ammonium salts and liquid polyphosphate
Incro Non-exclusive   Phosphoric acid,
ammonia
Product: Monoammonium phosphate. Crystal product
Jacobs Engineering Non-exclusive   Defluorinated
phosphoric acid,
ammonia
Product: Animal feed grade mono and diammonium
phosphates. Granular
Jacobs Engineering Non-exclusive   Phosphoric acid,
ammonia
Product: MAP/DAP slurry process, no fuel required (MAP),
pipe reactor
Kaltenbach-
Thuring
Case by case,
non-exclusive,
worldwide
Case by case Ammonia, phosphoric 
acid, sulphuric acid,
urea, potash
Product: Mono- and diammonium phosphates, urea-based
fertilisers. Slurry or pipe reactor processes. Low recycling
ratio
Krupp Uhde Exclusive Krupp Uhde Phosphoric acid,
ammonia
Product: DAP, MAP, various NP grades. Single pipe reactor
process resp. pre-neutraliser process
Weatherly Inc Exclusive Weatherly
Chematur
Phosphoric acid,
ammonia
Product: Granulated DAP
Weatherly Inc Exclusive Weatherly
Chematur
  Product MAP. Pipe reactor/granulated
AMMONIUM SULPHATE
Incro Non-exclusive   Ammonia, sulphuric
acid
Granulated product. Reaction, granulation, drying
Kaltenbach-
Thuring
Case by case,
non-exclusive,
worldwide
Case by case Ammonia, sulphuric
acid, ammonium
sulphate crystals
Product: Ammonium sulphate, ammonium
sulpho-nitrate. Fluidised drum granulation
Krupp Uhde Exclusive Krupp Uhde Ammonia, sulphuric
acid
Crystallisation
SUPERPHOSPHATES AND SUPERPHOSPHORIC ACID
Badger Non-exclusive Badger Phosphate rock,
phosphoric acid
Product: TSP. Digestion granulation
Grande Paroisse Non-exclusive, basic
and extended basic
engineering
Any qualified
contractor
Phosphate rock,
phosphoric acid,
sulphuric acid
Product SSP, TSP. Rotary drum den and belt. Process
accepts all known phosphate
Grande Paroisse Non-exclusive, basic
and extended basic
engineering
Any qualified
contractor
Phosphoric acid Product: Superphosphoric acidLow corrosion, energy saving
Grande Paroisse Non-exclusive, basic and 
extended basic
engineering
Any qualified
contractor
Phosphate rock,
phosphoric acid
Product: TSP. Granulated product. Direct granulation from
slurry. Low recycling ratio
Incro Case by case   Phosphate rock,
sulphuric acid,
phosphoric acid
Product: Single superphosphate, triplesuperphosphate
Reaction, curing
Jacobs Engineering  Non-exclusive   Phosphate rock,
phosphoric acid
Product: Granular TSP. Two reactors, slurry process
Jacobs Engineering Non-exclusive   Phosphoric acid (28-
59%)
Product: Superphosphoric acid (68-72% P205)
Jacobs Engineering Non-exclusive   Phosphate rock,
phosphoric acid
Product: TSP. Slurry or ROP (run of pile) process
Kaltenbach-
Thuring
Case by case,
non-exclusive,
worldwide
Case by case Phosphate rock,
sulphuric acid,
phosphoric acid
Product: SSP, TSP. Granulation at the den (belt or
Broadfield type) outlet
Krupp Uhde Exclusive Krupp Uhde Rock phosphate,
sulphuric acid,
phosphoric acid
Product: SSP, TSP.DEN process/drum granulation
Kvaerner Process  Technology Own Kvaerner Process
Technology
Phosphate rock,
sulphuric acid,
phosphoric acid
Product: SSP, TSP. Powder or granules
Swenson Non-exclusive Technip Speichim Phosphoric acid Product: Superphosphoric acid
LICENSOR TYPE OF LICENCE APPROVED
CONTRACTOR
FEEDSTOCK PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS
UREA
Bechtel Ltd   Bechtel Urea Urea granulation
Incro Case by case   Prilled urea Granulated product. Prill fatting in fluidised bed granulator,
drying, screening
Incro Case by case   Molten urea Granulated product. Fluid bed cooler granulator, drying and
screening
Snamprogetti Non-exclusive Snamprogetti
Mitsubishi Heavy
Industries Technip
Technipetrol PDIL
Bechtel Hyundai
Engineering
Ammonia, carbon
dioxide
Energy efficient and pollution free process
Stamicarbon Non-exclusive MW Kellogg Foster
Wheeler Brown &
Root Petroleum and 
Chemicals Chiyoda
Chemoprojekt
Krupp Uhde
Tecnimont Krebs
Ammonia, carbon 
dioxide
Synthesis at about 140 bar. Carbon dioxide stripping.
Simple process, one low pressure recirculation step.
Concentration by evaporation/crystallisation. High efficiency. 
Waste water treatment. Zero pollution. High onstream
time. High safety. 'Urea 2000 plus'
Toyo Engineering
Corporation
Non-exclusive, case
by case
Toyo Engineering
MK Ferguson
Salzgitter Tecnicas
Reunidas KTI
Ammonia, carbon
dioxide
High conversion rate. Minimum utility consumption.
Spouting bed granulation for spherical, free flowing granules
Urea Casale Non-exclusive Ube Industries   'HEC' high efficiency Casale urea reactor trays
Urea Technologies  Non-exclusive MW Kellogg Fluor
Daniel Brown &
Root Petroleum and
Chemicals Bechtel
Ford, Bacon & Davis
Ammonia, carbon
dioxide
Low installed cost, low cost/tonne. High efficiency and on-
stream factor. Proven process in many installations. Pollution
free. Hard, cool uniform prills
Weatherly Inc Exclusive Weatherly
Chematur
Ammonia, carbon
dioxide
Once-through, partial recycle, total recycle
UREA/AMMONIUM NITRATE
GIAP Russian Federation
patents
GIAP Urea, AN UAN solution, 32% vol nitrogen
Krupp Uhde Exclusive Krupp Uhde Urea, AN Mixing




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