The latest EU olefin operating rates (OR%) were very disappointing, even though they were not a surprise. As the chart shows, ethylene rates were just 81% (based on APPE data). They were far below the 90%+ rates that were normal before the crisis began.
These rates would normally have left the industry in crisis mode as regards profitability. But they were "rescued" by the parallel collapse in refinery runs, and the shortage of propylene/butadiene caused by the major shift to ethane feeds in the USA.
The second chart, from the International Energy Agency, highlights the truly startling change in German refinery runs since the financial crisis. Germany is the EU's largest and most prosperous country. Its refinery runs hardly ever fell below 2.1mbd before 2008. Since then, they have never reached this level, and were just 1.8mbd in February.
This average 18% fall in refinery runs gave major support to effective olefin OR%, as almost all EU crackers are based on refineries - either for naphtha or LPG. The high co-product values for propylene/butadiene were also critical in enabling the industry to deliver strong profitability.