Hydrochloric acid (HCl) can be produced in two ways, either by burning chlorine (burner grade) to produce semi-conductor or top of the range chemically pure strengths or as a by-product of various chlor-alkali processes i.e. TDI, EDA, VCM, MDI, PVC manufacture. The ICIS pricing report focuses on the latter, known as by-product/technical/waste acid or 30-33% solution.
The main end-uses are steel pickling/metallurgy, pulp and paper, chemical treatment and water treatment. Other applications include neutralisation, electronics industry, pharmaceutical manufacture, food processing, oil refining (pumped into the rock to release oil).
HCl is extremely corrosive and has special handling requirements- rubber lined road tankers, railcars and specially lined rubber ships. Sometimes it is transported in the form of Hydrogen Chloride, which is anhydrous and gaseous and easily liquefied under pressure.
To find out more Hydrochloric Acid Methodology March 2012