Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM)

Navigating volatility in this key commodity, with global data and insight 

Discover the factors influencing vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) markets

Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is principally polymerised into polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Sudden spikes and dips in demand can often be seen in VCM markets, due to the variety of end-user applications for PVC. This volatility is a challenge to navigate without accurate forecasts.

VCM is a truly global market, so it is vital to stay close to activity in Europe, Asia and the US, keeping track of supply and demand factors, price fluctuations and contracts secured. We provide actionable data, insights and analytics on the multitude of factors impacting prices, deals and decisions on a daily basis.

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India’s Mundra Petrochemical taps Nuberg to build chlor-alkali plant

MUMBAI (ICIS)–Indian producer Mundra Petrochemicals Ltd has awarded engineering services company Nuberg EPC a contract to build its new 2,200 tonne/day chlor-alkali project in the western Gujarat state. “The project entails construction of the caustic soda plant within the 1m tonnes/year green polyvinyl chloride (PVC) project in Mundra, Gujarat,” Nuberg said in a statement on 11 April. Nuberg expects to complete the project within 15 months, without disclosing financial details of the contract. Nuberg EPC is a global engineering and turnkey project management company based in Noida in the northern Uttar Pradesh state. Mundra Petrochemical is a subsidiary of Adani Enterprises Ltd, which is owned by major Indian conglomerate Adani Group. The caustic soda project forms part of the Adani Group’s 2m tonne/year greenfield PVC project in Mundra. In March 2023, the company halted construction of the PVC project as it worked to secure project funding. A consortium of banks led by state-owned State Bank of India had agreed in July last year to finance a significant part of the company’s PVC project, according to media reports. The project involves setting up a 2m tonnes/year PVC plant in two phases with the first phase expected to be commissioned in the fiscal year ending March 2026.

12-Apr-2024

Asia top stories – weekly summary

SINGAPORE (ICIS)–Here are the top stories from ICIS News Asia and the Middle East for the week ended 5 April 2024. Oil at six-month highs; Brent crude at above $91/bbl on Mideast tensions By Nurluqman Suratman 05-Apr-24 11:00 SINGAPORE (ICIS)–Oil prices were extending gains, with Brent crude hitting past the $91/barrel mark on Friday, fueled by escalating geopolitical tensions in the Middle East which could disrupt supply amid output cuts by OPEC and its allies (OPEC+). INSIGHT: NE Asia C2 shipments slower for May, arb narrowing for SE Asia By Josh Quah 04-Apr-24 21:35 SINGAPORE (ICIS)–With spot discussions now turned to May arrivals, Asia ethylene markets are in a wait-and-see moment. Taiwan petrochemical operations normal despite 7.7-magnitude quake By Nurluqman Suratman 03-Apr-24 15:18 SINGAPORE (ICIS)–Operations at most petrochemical plants in western Taiwan were unaffected by a major quake that struck off the eastern coast of the island early on Wednesday, but the port at Formosa Petrochemical Corp’s (FPCC) Mailiao refinery was reportedly shut. Singapore March manufacturing improves; external headwinds persist By Nurluqman Suratman 03-Apr-24 12:12 SINGAPORE (ICIS)–Manufacturing activity in Singapore improved in March, boosted by higher export orders, but may remain weighed down in the near term by global economic weakness. INSIGHT: India’s PVC in the eye of the storm; ADD inquiry launched, BIS regulation looms By Damini Dabholkar 02-Apr-24 16:00 SINGAPORE (ICIS)–India’s polyvinyl chloride (PVC) market was active over the past two weeks, with April offers being announced, and notifications being released for two regulations.

08-Apr-2024

India’s Epigral commissions 45,000 tonne/year chlorinated PVC resin line

MUMBAI (ICIS)–India’s Epigral Ltd has commissioned its 45,000 tonne/year chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) resin line at its facility in Dahej in the western Gujarat state. “Epigral now has a total CPVC resin capacity of 75,000 tonnes/year, positioning it as the largest CPVC resin facility in the world at a single location,” it said in a disclosure to the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) on 3 April. Epigral, formerly known as Meghmani Finechem Ltd, is a leading integrated manufacturer of chemicals in India, producing caustic soda, chlorine, caustic potash, chloromethanes, CPVC and hydrogen peroxide at its Dahej facility. “With this [CPVC] expansion, we are advancing towards our goal of becoming a multi-product company, geared up to enhance contribution from the derivatives and specialty chemicals segments,” Epigral chairman & managing director Maulik Patel said. The increased capacity will help the company meet rising global and domestic demand for CPVC resins, it said, adding that the increased capacity will also help reduce India’s reliance on imports of the material. Domestic demand for CPVC currently stands at around 250,000 tonnes/year and is expected to grow at an annual rate of 10-13%, a company source said. Separately, the company expects to commission its 35,000 tonne/year CPVC compound facility before June 2024. India currently imports its CPVC resin and CPVC compound requirements, and the new plant will help Epigral cater to domestic demand for both products. Meanwhile, the company also expects to commission its chlorotoluene and downstream value chain facility in the current calendar year, the company source said. Once operational, the chlorotoluene facility will produce intermediates for manufacturing pharmaceutical and agrochemical active ingredients. “Right now, India imports its chlorotoluene requirement completely from China, Japan, and Europe. We expect to cater to custom manufacturing companies that are currently importing this raw material,” the company source added.

04-Apr-2024

China petrochemical futures track crude gains on upbeat March factory data

SINGAPORE (ICIS)–China’s petrochemical futures markets were tracking gains in crude prices on Monday, with Brent trading at above $87/bbl, on bullish sentiment following a return of the world’s second-biggest economy into manufacturing expansion mode. Official, Caixin March manufacturing PMIs at above 50 China methanol, SM futures prices lead gains External demand picking up for selected goods At the close of morning trade, futures prices of major petrochemicals in Chinese commodity exchanges were up by 0.2% to 1.7%. China petrochemical futures markets Prices as of 03:30 GMT (CNY/tonne) % change vs 29 March Linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) 8,279 0.60% Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 5,803 0.20% Ethylene glycol (EG) 4,499 0.50% Polypropylene (PP) 7,542 0.80% Styrene monomer (SM) 9,451 1.40% Paraxylene* 8,534 0.70% Purified terephthalic acid (PTA) * 6,016 1.30% Methanol* 2,518 1.70% Sources: Dalian Commodity Exchange, *Zhengzhou Commodity Exchange At midday, Brent crude was up 30 cents at $87.30/bbl, while US crude gained 31 cents at $83.48/bbl. Crude futures were also supported by expectations of tighter supply amid output cuts by OPEC and its allies, which include Russia. Manufacturing activity in China expanded for the first time in six months, based on official data in March, generating a purchasing managers’ index (PMI) reading of 50.8, as companies accelerated production following the Lunar New Year holiday in the previous month. A separate reading by Chinese media group Caixin was more upbeat, with a higher March PMI reading of 51.1, the highest recorded since February 2023. In Caixin’s data, factory output continued to expand for the fifth straight month. The Caixin PMI surveys small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and export-oriented enterprises located in eastern coastal regions, while the official PMI is tilted toward larger state-owned enterprises. A reading above 50 indicates expansion, while a reading below denotes contraction. “Both supply and demand expanded at a faster pace amid the market upturn. In March, growth in manufacturers’ output and total new orders accelerated, with the former hitting a 10-month high,” Caixin Insight Group senior economist Wang Zhe said. “External demand also picked up pace thanks to the recovery in the global economy, pushing the gauge for new export orders to its highest level since February 2023,” the economist added. “Overall, the manufacturing sector continued to improve in March, with expansion in supply and demand accelerating, and overseas demand picking up,” Wang said. “Manufacturers increased purchases and raw material inventories amid continued improvement in business optimism. However, employment remained in contraction and a depressed price level worsened,” Wang added Besides the seasonal effect, firming overseas demand also helped to push up Chinese factory activities, local brokerage Haitong Securities wrote in a note, citing that furniture, transportation equipment and electronics were enjoying strong demand. China is projected to post around a 5% GDP growth this year, slower than the 5.2% pace recorded in 2023, with a slumping property sector posing a major drag on overall economic prospects. Property and other related sectors account for about a fifth of China’s GDP. While the property slump may persist, other sectors such as electric vehicles, new energy and digital economy are posting healthy growth, said Zhang Junfeng, senior analyst at Shenzhen-based brokerage China Merchant Securities. Focus article by Fanny Zhang ($1 = CNY7.23) Additional reporting by Nurluqman Suratman Thumbnail image: At Lianyungang Port in east China's Jiangsu Province, 26 March 2024. (Shutterstock)

01-Apr-2024

Europe top stories: weekly summary

LONDON (ICIS)–Here are some of the top stories from ICIS Europe for the week ended 22 March. Much improved outlook from manufacturers in Germany The business climate for manufacturing in Germany improved markedly in March, the Munich-based ifo Institute said on Friday, with its latest survey results supporting wider views on an improving economy. Eurozone private sector moves closer to stability in March, UK firms The eurozone private sector came close to stabilising this month, driven by a more pronounced return to growth footing for services, but the disparity between a stronger southern Europe and ongoing weakness in France and Germany continued. INSIGHT: SAF catalyst technology could also boost biochemicals production Catalyst technology used to power the first transatlantic flight conducted by a commercial airline which used 100% sustainable aviation fuel (SAF), could also have applications in chemicals production if a market can be developed to allow for commercial scale up. INEOS to end ethanol production at Grangemouth in Q1 2025 Slowing demand and cheap imports were cited as the key reasons why INEOS decided to halt production of synthetic ethanol at its Grangemouth site in the UK in Q1 2025. Europe PE/PP contracts settle up from February, sentiment noticeably weaker In Europe, polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) contracts for March have settled up from February and above the monomer, although sentiment has weakened.

25-Mar-2024

Brazil’s Braskem pushes polymers recovery to 2026 despite some green shoots

SAO PAULO (ICIS)–Braskem’s said on Tuesday a recovery in polymers prices in earnest will now only take place from 2026, with the Brazilian petrochemicals major posting again a poor set financial result. Global prices for some of Braskem's key products – such polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) – remain depressed and, despite some positive pricing signs at the start of 2024, this year will be again a difficult one. However, according to chemicals equity analysts on Tuesday, Braskem’s results could indicate certain improvements in its operating conditions. The company’s stock jumped as much as 6% in Tuesday morning trading, although the gains had moderated by the afternoon to just over 3%. Earlier on Tuesday, Braskem’s said its losses had widened in 2023, year on year, while its earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) fell nearly 65%. However, investors on Tuesday preferred to focus on Tuesday in Q4’s EBITDA, which went into positive territory, compared to Q4 2024, as well as a more moderate fall in revenue. Braskem (in $ million) Q4 2023 Q4 2022 Change 2023 2022 Change Revenue 3,369 3,613 -7% 14,113 18,733 -25% Recurring EBITDA 211 -32 N.A. 743 2,060 -64% Net income -317 -326 -3% -935 -70 1,234% “Q4 continued to be a difficult period for the petrochemical sector, so we consider a positive Braskem’s slight improvement in some price levels and spreads. Meanwhile, we see the company exploring some of the competitive advantages of its assets,” said equity analysts at Brazilian broker XP Investimentos. “However, we think it is too early to interpret this as a structural turnaround for the sector in 2024.” A VERY LONG DOWNCYCLEBraskem’s quarterly results conference calls have become an affair in which the most valued answer is when the company expects the recovery in earnest to take place. During most of 2023, the company’s executives would say that the global markets would start recovering this year and give way to the upcycle in 2025 onwards. However, on Tuesday both the company’s CFO, Pedro Freitas, and his second on board, the head of investor relations, Rosana Avolio, made it clear that some green shoots appearing in coming quarters would not mount to what the producer would consider a recovery. “2024 will be the year of a transition towards normalization, but still within the downcycle. We expect prices to start recovering in 2025 and for them to achieve sustained, higher levels in 2026,” said Avolio. “However, prices at the start of 2024 are better than we were expecting,” she added. Freitas placed the beginning of the upcycle in 2026-2027. Other Latin American petrochemicals players are also expecting a recovery only in two- or three-years’ time. In February, Mexico’s Orbia said China’s PVC overcapacities were to cast a shadow globally until at least 2026 while announcing it was stopping any expansion in that material until prices went up to, at least, $1,200/tonne. Front page picture: Braskem’s facilities in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil Source: Braskem

19-Mar-2024

AFPM '24: INSIGHT: Biden ending term with regulatory bang for US chems

HOUSTON (ICIS)–The administration of US President Joe Biden is proposing a wave of regulations before its term ends in 2025, many of which will increase costs for chemical companies in the US and persist even if the nation elects a new president later this year. The prospect of such consequential policies comes as delegates head into this year's International Petrochemical Conference (IPC), hosted by the American Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers (AFPM). Changes to the Clean Waters Act, the Risk Management Program (RMP) and the Hazard Communication Standard are among the most consequential policies being considered by US regulators. Electric vehicles (EVs) could receive more support from federal and state governments. This would increase demand for plastics used in EVs while discouraging refiners from making further investments, which could limit US production of benzene, toluene and mixed xylenes (MX). The failure of Congress to re-authorize the nation's chemical site security program could spell its end. REGULATORY PUSH DURING ELECTION YEARSuch a regulatory push by the Biden administration was flagged last year by the Alliance for Chemical Distribution (ACD), the new name for the National Association of Chemical Distributors (NACD). The group was not crying wolf. The next nine months could rank among the worst for the chemical industry in terms of regulatory change and potential issues, said Eric Byer, president of the ACD. "Whatever it's going to be, it will come done fairly aggressively." The Biden administration has proposed several consequential policies. For the Clean Water Act, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing new requirements, which will require chemical producers and other companies to develop plans to address the worst possible discharge from their plants. The ACD warned that the new requirement would raise compliance costs while doing little to reduce the already small number of discharges by plants. The final rule is scheduled to be published in April 2024. For the RMP, changes could require chemical companies to share information that has been off limits since the 9/11 terrorist attacks, according to the American Chemistry Council (ACC). The concern is that the information will fall into the wrong hands, while significantly increasing costs to comply with the new requirements, according to the ACD. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is introducing changes to its Hazard Communication Standard that could create more burdens for companies. The ACD warned that some of the changes will increase costs without providing a commensurate improvement in safety. The EPA has started the multiyear process that, under the regulator's current whole-chemical approach, will lead to restrictions imposed on vinyl chloride monomer (VCM), acrylonitrile (ACN) and aniline, a chemical used to make methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI). This is being done through the nation's main chemical safety program, known as the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). MORE POLICIES PROPOSED FOR EVsThe Biden administration is proposing additional polices to encourage the adoption of EVs. For chemical producers, more EVs would increase demand for plastics, resins and thermal management fluids that are designed to meet the material challenges of these automobiles. At the same time, the push towards EVs could limit sales of automobiles powered by internal combustion engines (ICEs), lowering demand for gasoline and diesel. Refiners could decide to shut down and repurpose their complexes if they expect demand for their main products will stop growing or decline. That would lower production of aromatics and other refinery chemicals and refined products. The Biden administration is moving on three fronts to encourage EV sales. The EPA is expected to decide if California can adopt its Advanced Clean Car II (ACC II), which would phase out the sale of ICE-based vehicles to 2035. If the EPA grants California's request, that would trigger similar programs in several other states. The EPA's light-duty vehicle proposal would impose stricter standards on tail pipe emissions. The US Department of Transportation (DOT) is proposing stricter efficiency standards under its Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) program. The AFPM opposes these measures. It said the EPA's light-duty vehicle proposal and DOT's new CAFE standards are so demanding, it would force automobile companies to produce a lot more EVs, plug-in hybrids and fuel-cell vehicles to meet the more ambitious requirements. LAX OVERSIGHT OF SHIPPING RATES IN WAKE OF HOUTHISThe ACD raised concerns that the US is not doing enough to address the possibility that shipping rates and delays have increased beyond what could be justified by the disruptions caused by the drought in Panama and by the Houthi attacks on vessels passing through the Red Sea to the Suez Canal. The ACD accepts that costs will rise, but it expressed concerns that shipping companies could be taking advantage of the situation by charging excessive rates on routes unaffected by the disruptions. These include routes from India and China to the western coast of the US, Byer said. "Why are you jacking up the price two or threefold?" LABOR NEGOTIATIONS FOR US EAST COASTThe work contract will expire this year for dockworkers and ports along the East Coast of the US. Byer warned of a possible strike if the talks become too contentious. On the West Coast, dockworkers and ports reached an agreement on a six-year work contract. CFATS ON LIFE SUPPORTByer expressed concerns about the future of the main chemical-site security program, called the Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS). CFATS is overseen by the Cybersecurity & Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA), which is under the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). CISA lost authority to implement CFATS on 28 July 2023, when a bill that would have re-authorized it was blocked from going to a vote in the Senate. Without CFATS, other federal and state agencies could create their own chemical-site security regulations. This process has already started in the US state of Nebraska, where State Senator Eliot Bostar introduced LB1048. Other nearby states in the plains could introduce similar bills, because they tend to follow each other's lead, Byer said. Many of these state legislatures should wrap up sessions in the next couple of months, so lawmakers still have time to propose chemical-site security bills. The ACD is most concerned about larger states creating chemical-site security programs, such as California, Illinois, New Jersey and New York. SENATE RAIL BILL REMAINS PENDINGA Senate rail safety bill has been pending for more than a year after a bipartisan group of legislators introduced it following the train derailment in East Palestine, Ohio. Congress has about 10 months to approve the bill before it lapses, Byer said. For bills in general, action during an election year could happen around the Memorial Day holiday in May, the 4 July recess, the August recess or before the end of September. After September, legislators will be focused on campaigning for the 5 November election. TEXAS BRINGS BACK TAX BREAKS FOR INDUSTRIAL PROJECTSTexas has revived a program that granted tax breaks to new chemical plants and other large industrial projects. The new program is called the Texas Jobs and Security Act, and it replaced the lapsed Chapter 313 School Value Limitation Agreement. The old program was popular with chemical companies, and their applications were among the first public disclosures of their expansion plans. The new program has already attracted applicants. Summit Next Gen is considering a plant that would convert 450 million gal/year of ethanol into 256 million gal/year of sustainable aviation fuel (SAF). Hosted by the AFPM, the IPC takes place on March 24-26. Insight article by Al Greenwood Thumbnail shows a federal building. Image by Lucky-photographer

18-Mar-2024

Americas top stories: weekly summary

HOUSTON (ICIS)–Here are the top stories from ICIS News from the week ended 15 March. US CPI inflation 'sticky' at 3.2%, may delay Fed rate cuts – ICIS economist US inflation, as measured by the consumer prices index (CPI), rose 0.4% month on month in February, leaving it up 3.2% year on year, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) reported on Tuesday. LyondellBasell sees signs of modest improvement in Q1 – CEO LyondellBasell is seeing some indications of modest improvement in its businesses, particularly in North America and Europe, with packaging being the strongest end market, its CEO said on Wednesday. US Trinseo seeks to sell stake in AmSty Trinseo has started the process to sell its 50% stake in Americas Styrenics (AmSty), the US-based engineered materials producer said on Wednesday. US outage to boost March Asia-Atlantic spot acetic acid, VAM trades Asia-Atlantic spot trades for acetic acid and vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) are expected to increase after supply gaps in the US and Europe emerged following an unexpected plant outage in the US. Potential for oil market deficit in 2024 as demand expectations grow – IEA Higher oil demand expectations and fresh production cuts from the OPEC+ alliance could push the 2024 crude market balance from a surplus to a slight deficit if the voluntary reductions remain in place for the rest of the year, according to the International Energy Agency. INSIGHT: US aromatics, refining output recedes as peak oil approaches Peak oil demand in the US could lead to a further decline in refining capacity, which will tighten supplies of benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) for downstream chemical producers. Unipar expects hardship in Argentina but Brazil PVC demand should recover Unipar’s operations in Argentina are set to face pressure from the current recession but a bright spot could appear in higher civil engineering activity in Brazil, propping up demand for polyvinyl chloride (PVC), the Brazilian chemicals producer said on Friday.

18-Mar-2024

Europe top stories: weekly summary

LONDON (ICIS)–Here are some of the top stories from ICIS Europe for the week ended 15 March. Europe ethylene and propylene sentiment cautiously optimistic for remainder of H1 Given the better-than-expected demand conditions, with improved sales volumes and higher prices lifting many out of the mire that was 2023, the question on everyone’s lips is how long can we expect this state of affairs to last. Potential for oil market deficit in 2024 as demand expectations grow – IEA Higher oil demand expectations and fresh production cuts from the OPEC+ alliance could push the 2024 crude market balance from a surplus to a slight deficit if the voluntary reductions remain in place for the rest of the year, according to the International Energy Agency. Surging PET bottle bale prices threaten to ‘destroy’ Europe’s R-PET market Feedstock bale prices hit €930/tonne ex-works in Poland on Monday, prompting recycled PET participants to suggest such price levels threaten to destroy the R-PET market as they fear a repeat of 2022’s disastrous price volatility. Europe acetic acid, VAM contract talks for March focus on supply disruption March negotiations are underway for European acetic acid and vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) contract pricing with security of supply a key influence on negotiations amid LyondellBasell’s force majeure in the US and other disruptions to global trade flows. Caution caps optimism as peak season arrives for Europe styrene market Spot activity in the Europe styrene market was moderate in the week ended 8 March, as players attended a key industry event, while cautious and conservative sentiment persisted alongside crosswinds from ongoing demand weakness and thin liquidity, high feedstock costs and reduced availability. Participants pointed to only slight improvements in demand and market optimism from levels seen in 2023. Europe cracker margins up on firmer ethylene, co-products pricing Cracker margins in Europe rose in the week on the back of firmer ethylene and co-product pricing, ICIS Margin Analysis showed on Monday.

18-Mar-2024

Asia top stories – weekly summary

SINGAPORE (ICIS)–Here are the top stories from ICIS News Asia and the Middle East for the week ended 15 March 2024. INSIGHT: Indorama exit from PET feedstock markets to spur China PTA exports By Nurluqman Suratman 15-Mar-24 11:42 SINGAPORE (ICIS)–Demand for China’s purified terephthalic acid (PTA) will get a boost as Indorama Ventures Ltd (IVL), a global producer of downstream polyethylene terephthalate (PET), shifts away from expensive integrated operations. INSIGHT: Policies announced in China Two Sessions will impact domestic petchems market in 2024 By Jimmy Zhang 14-Mar-24 23:07 SINGAPORE (ICIS)–China's Two Sessions earlier this month – the yearly meetings where its legislature sets laws and its advisory body offers policy recommendations – attracted attention from the market for the growth targets set and announcements on expected future economic development. According to Premier Li Qiang, China's GDP growth target is “around 5.0%”. US outage to boost March Asia-Atlantic spot acetic acid, VAM trades By Hwee Hwee Tan 14-Mar-24 12:26 SINGAPORE (ICIS)–Asia-Atlantic spot trades for acetic acid and vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) are expected to increase after supply gaps in the US and Europe emerged following an unexpected plant outage in the US. Asia caustic soda market could be underpinned by snug supply, limited vessel space By Jonathan Chou 13-Mar-24 15:40 SINGAPORE (ICIS)–Asia's liquid caustic soda spot supply may remain snug in the near term, while demand could continue its gradual growth into the second quarter (Q2) of 2024. PODCAST: China Group III base oils market sees supply, demand changes By Whitney Shi 12-Mar-24 15:53 SINGAPORE (ICIS)–In this podcast, ICIS Senior Industry Analyst Whitney Shi and ICIS Assistant Industry Analyst Jady Ma talk about supply and demand changes in China’s Group III base oils market. Saudi Aramco '23 profit falls on softer crude; ’24 focus on downstream growth By Nurluqman Suratman 11-Mar-24 12:37 SINGAPORE (ICIS)–Energy giant Saudi Aramco's net profit in 2023 fell by 24.7% to Saudi riyal (SR) 454.8bn ($121.3bn), weighed by weaker crude oil prices as well as lower refining and chemical margins.

18-Mar-2024

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